Meet Our People
Warner holds a Masters of Applied Finance and Bachelor of Finance, as well as being a Self-Managed Super Fund Specialist (SSA) and Certified Financial Planner (CFP). He is currently completed his Chartered Tax Adviser (CTA) designation.
Warner is a senior adviser to the privately-owned businesses and individual clients of Minchin Moore.
He has extensive experience in devising investment, insurance and taxation strategies to enable clients to build and protect their wealth, and assist in wealth transfer to the next generation. Warner also specialises in Lifestyle Financial Planning, working with clients to understand what they want to achieve, the timeframe they have to achieve their goals and the legacy they would like to leave behind. He seeks to ensure that their financial strategies empowers his clients to make decisions and bring more certainty to enrich their lives.
Warner has more than 14 years experience in the finance and investment industry and was advising clients at Westpac Private Bank for over 9 years and close to 2 years at Grant Thornton Private Wealth. He also speaks fluent Cantonese and provides advice to Chinese speaking clients.
In his spare time, Warner enjoys being active playing soccer, tennis and attending F45 classes with his partner, Helena. He also volunteers his time with the Cancer Council providing financial literacy advice with cancer patients and is also the Treasurer of the Gladesville Ravens Sports Club.
Andrew has a Bachelor of Commerce, a Graduate Diploma in Applied Finance and Investment, and a Graduate Diploma in Financial Planning. Andrew has more than 20 years of high net worth financial services experience developing expertise across investments, advice, and philanthropy.
Andrew’s previous experience includes Head of Advice and Head of Research, Managed Funds and Structured Products for one of Australia’s largest private banks. These roles included responsibility for the advice and investment process, and development of investment strategy and house views.
He also held the position of Senior Manager Investment Research with a leading private client fund manager. Andrew has significant investment governance experience through membership of highly influential Investment Committees.
As Chief Investment Officer, Andrew is custodian for the Minchin Moore investment philosophy and process, investment strategy across all asset classes for managed funds and listed investments, and implementation and review of all client portfolios. Andrew is Chairman of the Minchin Moore Investment Committee.
Andrew is deeply engaged with philanthropy and the For Purpose sector as a non executive director with Sydney Eisteddfod and National Centre for Childhood Grief. He is enjoying raising three daughters with his wife Belinda, and relaxes through golf, outdoor exercise, reading, supercoach, and gardening.
Dr Steve Garth brings together a rare combination of abilities that has taken him to the highest levels of academia, finance and business.
For nearly two decades, he played a key role in helping grow the Australian arm of one of the World’s largest asset managers. During his career he has managed Australian and global equity portfolios, managed the Asia Pacific trading team and oversaw the introduction of direct market access trading, and for the last 10 years he specialized in managing the firm’s fixed interest strategies.
Steve also had a key role in helping to communicate investment processes to institutional and advisor clients and prospects. He has the gift of synthesizing complex ideas, adding context and bringing them to life in new ways for multiple audiences.
Prior to his funds management career, in 2001, Steve was on the faculty of the University of New South Wales. His teaching and research interests were in optical fibre technology and quantitative finance.
Steve received his PhD in Applied Mathematics from the Australian National University. He also holds a BSc in Mathematics and Physics, a BA with majors in History and Politics, and holds a Masters of Applied Finance (MAppFin). As well, he has a Graduate Diploma in Business Administration.
Steve is a member of the Australian Institute of Company Directors.
Charlie has a Bachelor of Business, with majors in finance and marketing from the university of technology, Sydney.
Having worked for a year within financial planning as an administrative assistant, Charlie has joined the Minchin Moore investment team, he is responsible for the implementation of portfolios and the execution of trades and portfolio rebalances. Charlie is keen to build on his existing knowledge to become fully versed and skilled within the financial markets.
In his spare time, he likes to keep busy by engaging in a range of activities including rugby, basketball and skiing.
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Mark has a Bachelor of Economics (Econometrics major), Diploma in Financial Planning and is a Certified Financial Planner. Mark is also a Certified Executive Coach with the Institute of Executive Coaching and Leadership (IECL) and Certified Personal Trainer (FIA). He has been involved in financial planning and wealth management for over 20 years.
Mark commenced his career in the financial planning industry in 1997. Before becoming an adviser he held several specialist and senior roles across leading wealth businesses. For over a decade Mark was responsible for the training and support of financial advisers, with a particular emphasis on the formation of strategy for clients with complex needs.
Mark’s passion to see clients achieve their financial goals coupled with his comprehensive industry experience and deep understanding of strategic advice, provides an ideal foundation for his clients to leverage his advice and support across all things financial in their lives.
Mark is married to Di and is an active father with their two boys, Jed and Kye. He has a passion for people, sport and travel. He believes life is short and that it is a culmination of experiences, so he enjoys trying his hand at new activities, travelling to new places and experiencing new cultures. In between times, when he is not working with his clients, you will find him regularly in the surf, down the snow, at the gym or coaching his son’s football team. He also enjoys regularly traveling to Portugal to visit Di’s family.
Penelope has a Bachelor of Commerce, a Diploma of Financial Planning and over 20 years’ experience working within both boutique practices and the major retail banks.
Penelope started her career as a Paraplanner before moving to Financial Planning Software where she focussed on managing the roll out and ongoing training work for institutional clients.
In more recent years’ Penelope has gravitated back to small to medium financial practices who strive to provide independent financial advice with a focus on the individual client and their needs
Commencing with Minchin Moore in March 2020, she is committed to supporting the Advisers via continuous improvement across process, systems, and documentation
Penelope lives on the Northern beaches with her husband and two children. On weekends she enjoys catching up with friends, running between kids sporting events and planning holiday adventures
Danielle has a Bachelor of Economics & Finance and is currently enrolled in the Master of Financial Planning program at Deakin University.
Danielle began her career in a client services role for a stockbroking firm prior to joining Minchin Moore to pursue a career in advice. She is extremely personable and organised, making the client experience seamless and enjoyable.
In her spare time, she enjoys visiting her family in the country and friends on the South Coast, to enjoy a nice day or meal out.
After graduating with an Honours degree in English Literature from the University of Sydney, Georgia worked in educational publishing in London and Melbourne. She also studied in France and worked in Singapore as a journalist. Upon returning to Australia, Georgia moved into sales where she led and developed teams to excel.
Having recently moved to Orange and joined MMPW, Georgia provides essential support to the advisers and business to ensure the implementation process for our clients is smooth, accurate and timely.
With her background in publishing and leadership, Georgia has excellent organisational and communication skills.
Georgia and her family are enjoying exploring Orange and its surrounding areas.
Mark was ranked in Australia in the prestigious “Barron’s Australia Top 50 Financial Advisers” survey for 2017, 2018 and 2019.
Mark has a Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting), a Graduate Diploma in Applied Finance and Investment, a Graduate Diploma in Financial Planning, and he is a Certified Financial Planner. Mark has further specialist accreditations in the areas of self-managed super funds, derivatives, and margin lending. He has been involved in financial planning and wealth management for over 23 years.
Mark began his career in accounting with one of the big four before moving into financial services where he worked for some of Australia’s leading fund managers and investment banks prior to founding Minchin Private Wealth in 2010. Minchin Private Wealth became Minchin Moore in 2011 when the business merged with the longstanding financial advisory business of (now retired) Peter Williams.
With a deep understanding of the workings of capital markets, Mark’s skills encompass investment management, financial planning, trusts, estates, and philanthropy.
His strong industry background, thought leadership and commercial savvy, allows Mark to act as a valued sounding board for his clients on all matters financial.
Mark works with HNW families, individuals and a small number of for purpose institutions.
Mark is the father of three and in addition to enjoying time with his young family is a keen sportsman, regularly competing in long distance ocean paddling events around Australia. Mark’s wife Chantal, also a paddler, is a two time Olympian and Beijing Bronze Medallist. With this key alignment of interests Mark was able to play a significant role in Chantal’s coaching in the lead up to the Beijing Games.
Hayley has predominately worked as an HR Business Partner, with 12 years broad experience across telecoms, retail businesses and professional and financial services.
Hayley draws on her strong organisational, communication and interpersonal skills, to run our human resources functions as well as a range of management and client support functions within our practise.
Hayley is often the first point of contact for clients, her job is to make sure we meet the needs of our clients in line with their expectations and always with a smile on her face.
Hayley enjoys time with family and friends, she has two young children to keep her busy and manages her son’s soccer team.
Jenny has a Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting & Finance), a Diploma in Financial Planning, and is an accredited Derivatives and Self-Managed Super Fund adviser. She has over 23 years’ experience in wealth management and financial planning.
Having held a variety of senior technical roles in Australia’s major retail banks and Investment Banks, Jenny joined Minchin Moore in 2011.
A long-time colleague and ‘right hand’ to Mark Minchin in previous places of employment, Jenny became a Partner in 2013. In her role as Practice Manager, she has largely run our operation since 2011.
Having played an integral part of the formation of Minchin Moore, Jenny remains heavily involved in recruitment, corporate strategy, team training and operational leadership.
Jenny somehow juggles her demanding professional career with being the mother of twin boys. She enjoys spending time with family and friends and keeping fit.
Nick has an Advanced Diploma in Financial Planning, a Graduate Diploma in Applied Finance and is a Certified Financial Planner. Nick also has specialist accreditations in the areas of self-managed super funds, margin lending and direct equities. Nick has been involved in financial planning and wealth management for over 14 years.
Nick spent 14 years working in distribution with one of Australia’s largest financial institutions where he was responsible for the distribution of investment, retirement and insurance products. Nick joined Minchin Moore as an Associate Director in 2011 and became a Partner in 2014.
Nick prides himself on building long-term partnerships with clients. He focuses on delivering holistic financial advice specialising in superannuation, investment management and wealth protection. His clients include young professionals, wealth accumulators and pre-retirees.
Away from the office Nick enjoys time with friends and family, enjoys travelling and participates in a range of sports. Nick lives on the northern beaches and plays golf at Elanora Country Club.
In 2019 Cathryn was named by Financial Standard as one of Australia’s top 50, most influential advisers. At the time of the award, Financial Standard editor Jamie Williamson commented: “Many of the women on the list are there because of their devotion to helping other women overcome challenges and use their own life experiences to inform their offering.” This couldn’t be more accurate for Cathryn, who has built her client base by helping women manage their finances through and in the aftermath of separation and divorce.
Cathryn has a Bachelor of Economics and Bachelor of Science and a Diploma of Financial Planning. She has over 20 years’ experience in financial services and is an accredited Executive Coach.
In 2014 Cathryn established a boutique financial advice practice ‘Twelve Wealth’. Then in 2019 Cathryn took the decision to merge her practice with Minchin Moore where she is now a Partner and key decision maker.
Before founding Twelve Wealth, Cathryn worked with women on a Leadership journey as an Executive Coach. Prior to that, she spent more than 10 years working across corporate finance and institutional sales roles at a global investment bank and large trading bank. During this time, Cathryn was responsible for structuring and distributing Fixed Income product to government authorities, global banks, superannuation funds and hedge funds.
Cathryn has been a finalist in the AFA Rising Star Awards and sat on ASICs Financial Advisers Consultative Committee.
Cathryn is married with three school aged children. She lives on Sydney’s Lower North Shore and spends much of her leisure time watching her kids play sport. When time permits, she can be found skiing, walking the dogs and squeezing in a bit of high intensity exercise.
Tom has a Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting), a Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Finance and Investment, an Advanced Diploma in Financial Planning and is a Certified Financial Planner. Tom also has specialist accreditations in the areas of self-managed super funds, listed securities, margin lending and personal debt advice. Tom has been involved in the wealth management industry for over 14 years.
Tom began his career in portfolio management with a leading private client fund manager, where he gained a deep knowledge and appreciation for the workings of financial markets and the practical implications for real life portfolios. Tom then moved to one of Australia’s pre emanant fund managers where he worked with financial planning firms on portfolio construction and model enhancement. A former ‘Head of Investments’ at Minchin Moore, Tom continues to play a key role in our Investment Committee.
In Tom’s current day job, he specialises in providing holistic advice to HNW families and private clients. This includes advice across investment management, strategic financial planning, self-managed superannuation funds risk insurance and lending services. Tom enjoys seeing clients realise their financial and lifestyle goals.
Tom is the father of two, and in his spare time is a keen sportsman, participating in cycling, surfboat rowing and a range of outdoor activities.
Angus has a Bachelor of Agricultural Economics, a Graduate Diploma in Applied Finance and Investment, a Graduate Diploma in Financial Planning and is a Certified Financial Planner. He maintains a specialist accreditation in Self-Managed Super Funds with SMSF Association.
He began his career in financial services over 23 years ago. During this time he has held senior roles with a number of Australia’s leading financial services institutions.
Angus’ primary role is to provide specialist strategic, investment and risk management advice to farmers, graziers, business owners and professionals. His specialist advice incorporates:
- wealth accumulation and investment strategies;
- wealth protection strategies; and
- specialised superannuation, retirement and estate planning solutions.
He has a strong connection with and understanding of regional and rural issues. This allows him to assist clients to make sound and informed strategic financial decisions. It is his role to pull together an overall strategic plan and to make sure it evolves with the changing needs and objectives of his clients.
Angus is married with three children and lives on a small farm. He loves any sport – participating and watching. He is the secretary of Walcha Junior Rugby Union Football Club, President of Walcha Swimming Club and a proud member of the “High Cows Open Water Swim Group”.
Ben is a Partner in Minchin Moore. He has been involved in the financial services industry for over 20 years (both with small business and large corporates), and has a strong tertiary background (three degrees from UNSW). He is also a Chartered Tax Adviser and Self-Managed Superannuation Fund Specialist Adviser. Ben is deeply passionate about drawing a line in the sand in the financial planning industry, and delivering advice that is free from conflicts, and specific to the aspirations and outcomes that are important to each individual client.
Having established his own business at age 23, Ben has a particular expertise in working with small business owners and professionals. His partnership style approach in working with wealth accumulation clients as they navigate their key personal and financial milestones, ensures clients always have a “go-to-person” in their life for all things financial. He also focuses on giving back to clients their biggest life constraint which is time, so they can spend it with the people or doing the things that are important to them.
Ben is married to Gillian, and they have 3 energetic boys (ages 12, 9 and 7), a dog, a cat and some chickens. In between work and family time, Ben squeezes in as much sport (including as a spectator) and exercise as possible.
Lisa has a Bachelor of Accounting, is a Chartered Accountant and has also completed her Diploma of Financial Planning. Lisa has more than 20 years experience working as a financial accountant with small to medium businesses.
Lisa started her career in Chartered Accounting before spending more than 16 years in financial accounting roles at the world’s largest luxury goods company. After moving into leadership positions in this company, Lisa realised there was something missing form her life. It was helping people. She noticed that of the people she worked with, the majority of these being women, most had given up on owning a home in Sydney, were far too tempted by the luxuries of ‘today’ and didn’t comprehend the impact of decisions now on their future. This prompted Lisa to leave her corporate role to commence a new career in financial advice. Lisa understands that people are time poor, and are pushing important financial decisions to the side or not giving them the consideration they should, and they need help.
Lisa’s personal time is spent helping her family be healthy and active. Lisa enjoys yoga, going for a morning run and cooking healthy meals. She does this in between children’s sport and activities, and working. Lisa believes we need to look after our mind, health and finances.
Katie holds a Bachelor of Management from the University of South Australia, and an Advanced Diploma of Financial Planning. She plans to undertake studies in the Certified Financial Planner qualification in 2018-19. Katie has worked in the financial services industry for over 15 years.
Prior to joining Minchin Moore Katie worked with ANZ Private for 12 years, her final role there being that of Senior Adviser, where she assisted a select group of individuals and families with their financial planning and investment management needs.
Katie has a special interest in the education and financial literacy of young women. She has mentored female students in financial and business studies at Macquarie University and has acted as a Graduate Coach for wealth graduates in ANZ.
With her strong attention to detail, Katie prides herself on providing a comprehensive service that simplifies and helps co-ordinate her clients’ financial lives. She works with clients to initially identify their key values and objectives and then designs and executes an ongoing strategy to achieve what is important to them.
Lucinda has a Bachelor of Agribusiness (Marketing) and an Advanced Diploma in Financial Planning. Lucinda has worked within the financial planning industry for over 14 years in various roles.
Prior to recently joining Minchin Moore Lucinda worked with one of Australia’s leading business banks for 9 years as a Senior Adviser, where she worked with both business and agribusiness clients managing their financial planning, insurance and investment needs.
Lucinda has a passion for regional Australia and helping to bring relevant financial services to rural communities.
Lucinda is married and lives with her husband and young son in Tamworth. In her spare time, she love spending time with her family as a new mum, catching up with good friends, reading and travelling.
Larissa has a Bachelor of International Business, a Diploma in Financial Planning, a Masters in Applied Finance and a Masters in Business Administration. She has also completed the Certified Financial Planning program.
Starting out as an investment analyst with a self-licensed financial planning firm for high net wealth clients and then moving into team leader and advisory roles across Melbourne, Sydney, Canberra and Adelaide, Larissa has worked within the financial planning industry since 2008
Having joined us in March 2020 as a Senior Associate Adviser, Larissa is a highly organised person with strong technical skills and attention to detail. Her knowledge spans across many advice areas including superannuation, retirement planning, investments and insurance.
Larissa thoroughly enjoys working with clients by helping them map out strategic financial plans and working with them over many years towards achieving their financial goals and objectives.
In her spare time, Larissa enjoys travelling, doing volunteer work and most importantly spending time with family and friends.
Matt holds a Bachelor of Commerce (Finance and Commercial Law) and an Advanced Diploma in Financial Planning. He is currently studying for his Master of Business Administration at the University of Sydney.
Matt has worked in financial services since 2011. During this time Matt has worked for a range of large, listed financial services firms and fund managers in roles spanning operations and advice.
Matt joined the team at Minchin Moore in 2020. He is passionate about breaking down the complexity of financial advice to provide our clients with positive long-term outcomes.
Away from the office, Matt enjoys reading, travelling, golf, and spending time with friends and family.
Charlie has a Bachelor of Business, a Graduate Diploma in Applied Finance & Investment and a Diploma of Financial Services. He has over 17 years’ experience in professional investment management and is a fellow of the Financial Services Institute of Australasia.
Charlie established a boutique advice practice ‘Perkins Portfolio Management’ (PPM) in Orange in 2009. After a long association, the practice ultimately merged with Minchin Moore in 2016.
Prior to founding PPM, Charlie spent 10 years in senior institutional trading and sales roles at Citigroup Global Markets [Sydney and London]. During this time, Charlie was responsible for trading with and marketing to key stakeholders across the global investment landscape, including government authorities, sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, hedge funds and high net worth individuals. Charlie’s last position at Citigroup was Director – Fixed Income, Commodities & Currencies, Citigroup Global Markets London.
Charlie’s international markets experience has allowed him to develop a deep knowledge of financial markets encompassing all asset classes – from equities, to bonds, commodities and currencies.
With this market knowledge coupled with a strong ability to think strategically, Charlie works closely with high net worth families and individuals to build comprehensive financial strategies and investment plans.
Charlie is married with four young children and lives in Orange. He has a keen interest in virtually all sports, but especially rugby, golf and cricket. When time permits he can be found either on the fairways of Duntryleague or the hill at Orange Emus.
Anh has a Bachelor of Commerce (majoring in Economics and Marketing), an Advanced Diploma in Financial Services (Financial Planning) and is a Certified Financial Planner. Anh has been in the finance industry for 18 years and has spent the last 15 years providing financial advice.
Prior to joining Minchin Moore Anh spent 9 years at Perpetual Private advising successful individuals and their families with wealth preservation, asset growth and intergenerational wealth transfer. Anh also has extensive experience advising individuals who have received significant court settlements on how to structure their financial affairs and invest their proceeds in line with prudent person principles. Prior to Perpetual Private Anh also held advice roles at Mercer, FSD (an independent boutique) and NAB.
Anh was awarded Perpetual’s Senior Adviser of the year award in 2013 and Rookie Adviser of the year award in 2010. In addition, Anh received NAB’s Wealth Manager of the year award in 2004.
Anh enjoys the long term relationships she develops with clients. She takes the time to understand what is important to them and then develops bespoke smart solutions for each client. Anh regularly reviews her advice to ensure that as each client’s life evolves so too does their financial plan. As their trusted adviser, Anh’s clients know they can rely on her to provide them advice which is in their best interest.
Anh lives on the Northern beaches with her husband and two daughters. She loves traveling and baking in her spare time.
Alex has a Graduate Diploma of Financial Planning, is a Certified Financial Planner (CFP) and Life Risk Specialist (LRS).
Alex has over fifteen years’ experience working in the financial planning industry. He began his career with another leading financial planning firm in Sydney (9yrs), following which he moved to London (3yrs) where he gained an in depth understanding of the UK tax system and pension schemes. On returning to Australia, Alex spent a year as a senior business analyst with BT Financial Group prior to joining Minchin Moore in 2015.
A detailed and technical adviser, Alex enjoys working with a wide range of clients with varying needs. Alex’s client base includes a cross section from young professionals through to retirees facing aged care related issues. Alex understands and respects that each client is unique, so it is vital that advice be tailored to their personal needs and objectives.
Outside of work Alex enjoys travelling and spending time with family and friends. He is also a keen water polo player, open water swimmer and snowboarder.
Elizabeth has a Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting) and an Advanced Diploma in Financial Planning. She is currently completing the Certified Financial Planning program.
Elizabeth has worked within the financial planning industry since 2007 in various roles.
A highly organised person, with strong technical skills and attention to detail, Elizabeth can formulate and communicate complex strategies. Her knowledge stretches across many advice areas including superannuation, retirement planning, investments and insurance.
Having joined us in January 2016 as an Associate Adviser, Liz now plays a leadership role within the operations team, actively mentoring some of our newer staff members.
In her own time Elizabeth isn’t afraid of having a go at any kind of sport and enjoys keeping fit, traveling and spending time with family and friends.
Jonathan holds a Bachelor of Commerce (First Class Honours) from the University of Auckland, a Master of Financial Planning (Excellence) from the University of New South Wales, where he graduated top of his class and he is a Certified Financial Planner.
Jonathan began his career as an investment banker at Deutsche Bank focused on large cap M&A, before relocating to Hong Kong and London to manage the bank’s Australian and New Zealand leveraged and corporate debt portfolio.
Upon returning to Sydney, Jonathan worked at Goldman Sachs advising clients across a range of matters including M&A, strategy, valuation, and equity capital markets. Jonathan joined Minchin Moore in 2017, and has 11 years’ experience in the financial services industry and in the provision of financial advice.
In his spare time Jonathan enjoys swimming and surfing and is a volunteer lifeguard at Bondi Beach.
Jane holds a Bachelor of Tourism Management, an Advanced Diploma of Financial Planning and is currently completing a Masters of Financial Planning.
Jane has worked in financial services since 2007, starting out as a Paraplanner with a self-licensed financial planning firm for high net wealth clients, before moving into team leader and operations roles. Prior to joining Minchin Moore, Jane spent four years with BT Financial Group, most recently as Business Manager to the General Manager of the BT Advice & Private Wealth businesses. With a passion for financial advice and helping others, Jane enjoys working directly with clients.
Away from the office, Jane enjoys being active, travelling and spending time with family and friends.
Having initially graduated from the University of NSW with a Bachelor of Science degree, Annabelle worked extensively in the science field including positions within the environmental, pharmaceutical, dairy and pathology sectors.
A career change and further tertiary study saw Annabelle graduate with distinction in a Bachelor of Business degree majoring in Accounting.
After working in the accounting field Annabelle joined Perkins Portfolio Management in 2011 where she has worked as an Associate Adviser for four years. Annabelle became part of the Minchin Moore team when the two practices merged in 2016.
Annabelle enjoys a wide range of sports including bike riding and is kept busy at home by her three children and her husband Matt, whom she assists with the management of his Land Surveying practice. Annabelle was a member (and Treasurer) of the Kinross Wolaroi School Council from 2013 to 2017.
Elke has a Bachelor of Science, with majors in Finance and Accounting, a Master of Science, with a major in Corporate Finance and recently completed her Graduate Diploma of Financial Planning.
During her time at University, Elke was part of the ‘Students Portfolio Management Program’ and an intern at a financial services company in the US.
Elke’s time as a student in America galvanised a deep interest in financial planning, after spending some time travelling, she moved to Sydney in 2017 and began her career in advice.
A highly organised person, with strong attention to detail, Elke enjoys working closely with Partners in the business – supporting them by providing meaningful advice and exceptional service.
In her spare time Elke likes to be challenged with all kinds of sports. She enjoys obstacle races, scuba-diving and going for an adventure ride on her motorbike.
Elke is a volunteer for the ‘Make a wish’ foundation where she is passionate about making life-changing wishes for children happening.